Posts Tagged ‘syria


Iran-Syria-Hizballah-Hamas: Historical Background

Iran-Ideology and Strategy

Historically, fears and obsessive preoccupation with foreign interference, blended with impotence in the face of foreign inluence, have formed the basis of Iranian nationalism. Geography; the need to secure the country’s territorial integrity; competition with other empires (such as the Ottoman Empire); meddling in Iran’s internal afairs by Western/Eastern powers such as Russia, Britain, and the United States; geopolitics and “an acute awareness of the weight of history” have a special place in determining Iranian foreign policy. At the same time, the perception among most Iranians that Iran has been able to overcome outside pressures has allowed for the rise of an “arrogance of nonsubmission.” Ayatollah Khomeini’s celebrated phrase, “America cannot do anything” is a good example of this tendency.(7)
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A Coalition Against Nature
Why Does It Work ?
by Ely Karmon, Ph.D.

The Proteus Monograph Series
Volume 1, Issue 5
May 2008

About the Author

Dr. Ely Karmon has written extensively on international terrorism and has participated to numerous international conferences. His book entitled “Coalitions between Terrorist Organizations. Revolutionaries, Nationalists, Islamists (1968-2000)” was published in 2005 by Martinus Nijhof Publishers. Dr. Karmon is a Senior Research Scholar at the International Policy Institute for Counter-terrorism, and since 2003, also at he Institute for Policy and Strategy, he Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya, Israel.

Dr. Karmon holds a B.A. in English and French Culture from the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. He earned both his M.A and Ph.D. from Haifa University. He took a Licence in International Relations from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques, and a Licence in Bantu languages from the Ecole de Langues Orientales, Paris.

He has been a Senior Research Scholar at the International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism in Herzliya since 1997. He lectured on Terrorism and Guerrilla in Modern Times at he Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya and at the IDF Military College; on International Terrorism at Bar-Ilan University, Israel (2002/3); and on the subjects of International Terrorism and European Extremist Parties and Organizations at Haifa University (1992-2000).

Dr. Karmon was the Shari and Herb Rosen visiting fellow at he Washington Institute for Near East Policy in 2002, which published his policy paper “Fight on All Fronts: Hizballah, the War on Terror, and the War in Iraq” (December 2003). He is a member of the International Permanent Observatory (IPO) on Security Measures during Majors Events at the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), Turin, and an Associate Fellow at the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence (ICSR), London, UK.

Dr. Karmon has been involved in several NATO workshops on terrorism and on the Mediterranean Dialogue. He also serves as advisor to the Israeli Ministry of Defense, and served as advisor of the Anti-Semitism Monitoring Forum of the Israeli Government Secretariat.

Table of Contents

Historical Background
The Building of the Triple Alliance: Iran, Syria, Hizballah (1980-1992)
The Building of the “Axis of Destabilization” (1992-2001)
The “Axis of Destabilization” after 9/11 and the War in Iraq
The “Axis” Involvement in Iraq
The Second Lebanon War (July-August 2006
The United States and Western Strategies in Challenging the “Axis of Destabilization”
Israel’s Counter-terrorism Strategy
Achievements of the “Axis of Destabilization”
The Alliance: Future Scenarios
The Predicament of the Iranian Nuclear Project
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